Previous research in the field has suggested that the majority of consultations conducted by sport psychologists are related to anxiety. Included is a discussion on the theoretical underpinnings of anxiety and how it relates to performance.
In the most basic sense, cognitive intervention or rehabilitation includes every procedure that can help people with cognitive impairments to successfully engage in activities that are rendered difficult by those impairments. In schools, cognitive intervention may be implemented in ways that are not referred to explicitly as cognitive intervention.
In addition, special educators and therapists e. These activities may or may not be helpful, depending on the evidence base of the activities, the skill of the therapist, and the extent to which therapy exercises are effectively integrated with classroom activities for transfer.
Transfer of training generalization from training setting to application setting must always be highlighted as the most critical aspect of intervention if implemented outside of the context of everyday academic or social routines.
Currently cognitive rehabilitation in this narrow sense is quite controversial. In contrast, there is evidence to suggest that such exercises may have limited translation to functional improvement There is limited support for the use of attention exercises to improve attentional functioning across domains of content, particularly if those exercises are accompanied by efforts to help the students understand their difficulty in this area and acquire strategies to compensate for the difficulty.
In a joint committee of the American Psychological Association and the American Speech, Language and Hearing Association distinguished between two interestingly different paradigms, or ways of understanding cognitive rehabilitation: These two approaches were defined in terms of their understanding of the focus and goals of cognitive rehabilitation, relevant assessment procedures, treatment modalities and methods, organization of treatment, and setting, content, and providers of treatment.
While many professionals combine aspects of these two approaches, it helps to understand the controversies in the field by contrasting the two approaches. Focus and Goals Traditional Cognitive Retraining: The focus of intervention is on the underlying neuropsychological impairment, with the goal of restoring cognitive functions e.
In this approach, residual cognitive skills are often utilized to assist weakened abilities. Increasingly the focus of treatment has come to include the use of compensatory strategies to augment restorative interventions and maximize intervention techniques across areas of functioning for the individual.
Cognitive remediation is often done outside of the functional contexts or environments of the individual e. Context-Sensitive Cognitive Intervention and Support: Needed environmental adaptations and supports to make that participation possible and successful are of primary importance, along with compensatory strategies that might be of use to the student.
The primary goal is to help individuals achieve their real-world objectives and participate in their chosen real-world activities that may be blocked by cognitive impairments. In contrast to traditional cognitive remediation approaches, this intervention is typically embedded within the person's natural environments e.
Assessment Traditional Cognitive Retraining: Both diagnosis and treatment planning are based on standardized neuropsychological tests, possibly combined with customized laboratory tasks. Testing identifies both cognitive strengths and weaknesses, upon which interventions are based. Outcome tends to be measured by similar tests at a later point in treatment.
More recently practitioners working within the traditional framework have begun to add measures of changes in functioning in real-world activities to their test batteries.
Recommendations are made to improve performance across other areas of functioning Context-Sensitive Cognitive Intervention and Support: Assessment takes place across three levels of functioning: Standardized neuropsychological measures are used, with possible expansion of tasks to isolate the underlying processes that are affected in poor performance.
Assessment includes systematic behavioral observations of everyday activities static assessment and exploration of variables that affect functional performance of everyday activities dynamic assessment.
Surveys and reports of real-world participation may be used static assessment along with exploration of context variables that affect functional participation dynamic assessment. The latter includes systematic behavioral observations of the competencies of those individuals providing the student with everyday supports e.
Retraining relies largely on focused cognitive exercises designed to restore impaired cognitive processes or skills. These restorative exercises may be combined with the use of compensatory cognitive strategies to bypass deficits and augment cognitive functioning in daily activities.
Family members or others may be involved in treatment to help generalize and practice techniques learned in remediation to the home and community setting.
Intervention and support includes flexible combination of cognitive exercises if indicated and supported by evidencetask-specific training of relevant everyday skills, and intervention for strategic thinking and compensatory behavior in functional contexts.
Organization of Treatment Traditional Cognitive Retraining: Cognitive exercises are normally ordered hierarchically in three respects: Exercises for basic components of cognitive functioning are mastered before more complex components of the same task are introduced.
Mastery of skills in acquisition tasks is facilitated before generalization tasks are introduced. Reduction of underlying cognitive impairments is addressed using impairment-oriented exercises first, with gradual generalization of skills to everyday activities using compensatory strategies if necessary.Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) A-CRA is an intervention that seeks to help adolescents achieve and maintain abstinence from drugs by replacing influences in their lives that had reinforced substance use with healthier family, social, and educational or vocational reinforcers.
This lucidly written guide presents an innovative approach for treating somatization disorder and related problems, such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that aims to improve mental health. CBT focuses on challenging and changing unhelpful cognitive distortions (e.g. thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes) and behaviors, improving emotional regulation, and the development of personal coping strategies that target solving current problems..
Originally, it was designed to treat MeSH: D The interventions recommended were based on a cognitive behavioral approach. The control arm received usual care. Patients were assessed for symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, insomnia, dyspnea, anorexia, fever, cough, dry mouth, constipation, mouth sores, pain, and fatigue.
The first generation of cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis, when added to standard care, has demonstrated efficacy in treating patients with delusions and hallucinations.
Details in this article. Cognitive behavioral therapy reduces recidivism in both juveniles and adults. The therapy assumes that most people can become conscious of their own thoughts and behaviors and then make positive changes to them.
A person's thoughts are often the result of experience, and behavior is often influenced.